Posting Your Final Paper to UNI Scholarworks

Now that your Masters paper has been approved, it is time to publish it. 

We are now publishing our papers to the UNI Scholarworks database.  This is a repository where masters and doctoral students can submit their work so that others may read and reference their work. Your paper will be searchable by other researchers and academics.

Professors' Approval
Now that we are submitting your papers digitally, the rules have changed.  Your professors don't need to sign your papers anymore. Their approval will be indicated by the approval forms that are submitted in the office (you never see them.)  The digital copies won't include their signatures because your papers will be available online to the world and we don't want to make their signatures available to all. Instead, you must include the names of your 1st reader, 2nd reader and Curriculum and Instruction Department Head on Page 2 of the Masters Paper template. This will be enough.  (If you want to have a printed copy of your paper with your professors' signatures, just follow the Want a Printed Copy? instructions below.)

Instructions for Posting Your Paper to ScholarWorks
  1. Complete the Student Permission Form
    1. It will ask if you want an "embargo period". Answer "none".
  2. Convert your paper to a .pdf format. 
  3. Email your the final version (pdf) to
If you have questions, don't hesitate to contact Ellen Neuhaus
Want a Printed Copy?
You may want a printed and certified copy that you can hold in your hand and place on your bookshelf.  This is not required but follow these steps if you 

Format for Printing Your Paper 
  • Paper: 25% cotton thesis bond (Ask your printer about this.) 
  • Cover: Maroon or Dark Blue vinyl cover (Front and Back) 
  • Binding: Spiral Plastic Binding
Printing Your Paper and Getting it Signed.
  1. Call CopyWorks at 319-266-2306 in Cedar Falls. You will discuss the financial arrangements and the process you will use to submit your paper to CopyWorks for printing. 
  2. It is suggested that before sending your paper to be printed, you should convert it to.pdf format so that it can’t be accidentally modified. 
  3. Arrange with CopyWorks (or where ever you print your paper) to deliver the printed copies to Schindler Education Center 613.
  4. Your readers and the Department Head will sign your printed copies and they will be returned to you

Addressing Level 3 Table of Contents Problems

Trying to get APA format and Microsoft Word capabilities can be a problem at time - especially when it comes to the automatic Table of Contents.

As noted in an earlier posting, if you format each of your headings with a Format Style (Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3) MS Word can create a Table of Contents for you.

Problem is that the Level 3 APA heading causes a problem so that it won't register in the Table of Contents. The problem is that the heading is on the same line as the regular text.  See the example below:

Level 3 Example:
     Generation Z. This generation is a unique generation because they will not have lived in a time when the World Wide Web didn't exist.

There are two ways to beat this problem:
  1. Don't worry about it.  Be happy with only having levels 1 and 2 in your Table of Contents - Be Done With It.
  2. Insert the lines for the Level 3 headings into the Word-Generated Table of Contents and place the Level 3 heading and page number into it manually.
Deciding which of these tactics will be completely up to you.
If you select option 2, I have created a 4-minute video that explains the process.
ALERT:  If you select option 2, you don't use Heading 3 in your formatting.  You just change it to Normal and then bold your heading manually.

Happy Writing 
I would appreciate your feedback on 
how well this addressed your needs.

How to Modify Existing Heading Styles for the APA Format

If you want to create an automatic Table of Contents in Word, then you need to format each of your headings using the appropriate Style format (see an earlier posting).

Word uses Headings 1, 2, 3, etc to identify the position of each title in the Table of Contents.  Therefore, you need to modify each of the Word headings so that they will match the heading formats defined by APA.

I have created a 7-minute video that demonstrates how you can do this.  Remember that you are not creating new styles.  You are modifying existing styles.

Using the Five Levels of Heading in APA Style

Organization is a key element in article/review organization.  This organization is achieved through the headings the writer uses to provide a framework for the reader.

The American Psychological Association has a set of 5 levels that they include in their framework: (The following graphic was shared in the APA Style Blog.)

Here are some points that you should realize about these headings:
  • All of the levels are bolded except level 5
  • Level 1 is the only level centered.
  • Level 2 is the only level left justified.
  • Levels 3 - 5 all end with periods.
  • Levels 1 & 2 are the only levels that use Title Capitalization.  Levels 3 - 5 use Sentence Capitalization.
  • Levels 4 & 5 are indented.
Here is the beginning of a sample document using these headings. Click here to get to the rest of the document.

Should You Be So Bold?

The APA format for bolding level 1 headings is Quite Confusing.  Here is a table that lists which headings need to be bolded and which don't.

Table of Contents - Make MS Word Your Worker

The most meticulous part of writing your review is the Table of Contents.  This is obviously the last thing that you do (after writing the abstract) and that is not the time you want to be bogged down with details.  

Tips about Headings and Subheadings 

  • The Headings are the main parts of your review: Abstract, Table of Contents, Introduction, Methodology, Analysis and Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations, and References.
  • Subheadings are GOOD.  They provide a visual framework for your readers. 
  • Subheadings should probably only be used in the Analysis and Discussion and Conclusions and Recommendations sections.  
  • You don't need subheadings in the Introduction and Methodology.

Using MS Word to Create Your Table of Contents 

MS Word can actually create your Table of Contents for you. You just need to tell MS Word which lines are the headings, subheadings, sub-subheadings and sub-sub-subheadings.  You do this by assigning a Style to each heading.  If you are using the UNI IT Masters Template, you will find that Headings 1 - 4 have already been created for you using the APA 6th Edition format.

I am going to describe how to prepare your headings and then create your Table of Contents in the steps below.  There will also be videos at the end of this posting which will demonstrate how to create a Table of Contents. (BTW, I am using a Mac to create this Table of Contents because that is what I have available. I have included a video at the end which will explain how to do it with Windows.)

Preparing Your Review for Your Table of Contents

  1. Write your review and insert headings where necessary.  
  2. Using the template, the Main Headings (Heading 1) have already been formatted.  They are bold and centered.
  3. Highlight a subheading (Heading 2) and click on the Heading 2 box in the Styles Section of the Home Menu at the top of your document in Word.  This should make this subheading bold and left justified. Do this throughout your review.
  4. Highlight a sub-subheading (Heading 3) and click on the Heading 3 box in the Styles Section. This should bold this sub-subheading and indent it 5 spaces.
  5. You get the idea - continue this to your sub-sub-subheadings, but I don't think that you will have any of those.

Asking MS Word to Create Your Table of Contents

Now that you have identified the headings et al. that you want to be included in your Table of Contents, MS Word can create your Table of Contents
  1. Place your cursor where you want your Table of Contents to be located.
  2. From the Insert Menu, select Index and Tables.
  3. Select Table of Contents from the appearing window. 
  4. Select From Template (See, we even created the TOC template for you.)
  5. VOILA!!!!!   You have a Table of Contents!

Updating Your Table of Contents

As you make ongoing changes to your review, it will mess up the accuracy of your TOC.  You can update it at will.  (Will who?)
  1. Right-Click on your TOC.
  2. Select Update Field.
  3. Make either selection on your appearing window.
  4. VOILA!!!!!   You have an updated TOC!

Creating a Table of Contents using Windows (Word 2013)

Creating a Table of Contents Using Mac OSX (Word 2011)

Examples Relevant to Literature Reviews

It can be useful to have examples of writing if you are trying to create a specific style of document.

You will find a number of examples throughout the RWLDs, the Assignment pages and in the back of the Galvan book.

"10-page" Literature Reviews for Seminar:

"30+ page" Literature Review (written as an IT Masters Culmination Activity)
Here is an example of a well-written, student-written literature review.  The review is actually 39 pages (+ references) but it will provide a good example.

Facilitating Transfer for Adult Learners Through Cross-Cultural e-Learning by Andy Rose

What do you think?  Were these examples useful?


Module 11: Refining Your Abstract

You are almost done!!!

You have written your Introduction, Methodology, Analysis and Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations.   Now all that you need to do is complete the beginning and the end of your Literature Review.  You need to complete your Abstract and your References.


You have been reading abstracts forever.  These are the short, 150-word descriptions that give you a brief description of the contents of the article.  Within this short passage, you expect to find the topic, purpose, methodology and conclusions. This provides a usable overview for researchers.

Your abstract should follow the same structure as your review:
  1. Describe the topic in one sentence;
  2. Explain the purpose, thesis or organizing construct and the scope of the article;
  3. List the sources used; and
  4. Review the conclusions.
The best way to evaluate the completeness of an abstract is by asking yourself if it tells enough about the article for a researcher to read and decide whether this article will be useful for her research.

Here is an example of a good abstract that follows the outline above:

Universal Design for Learning (UDL) can be used to create differentiated learning environments. This review examines the effects of Universal Design for Learning on student achievement in a secondary school setting. Seven peer-reviewed research studies and one doctoral dissertation published between 2002-2010 were selected for analysis. The reviewed research studies indicated that students tended to perform better when material was presented through a multitude of channels and students were given a choice of methods for demonstrating proficiency. Future research into using UDL in the K-12 curriculum was recommended. (88 words)

Did it accomplish what was intended?  Please note that it is only 88 words.

Module 10: Sharing Your Conclusions and Recommendations

     Now that you have captured your readers' attention with your captivating Introduction . . . and you have informed them of the research questions you will pursue . . . and you explained how you went about your search . . . and you shared your findings . . . it is time to tell your readers "what you think."
     Up to this point, your readers didn't care about your thoughts.  All that they wanted to know was what studies had to say about answering your specific research questions.

Writing the Conclusions:Now it is time for you to share your own opinions. You have the opportunity to tie together the loose ends that you have discovered as you combed through the literature. This is where you can discuss what your discoveries mean to you and ultimately to the rest of the world.   This is where you cite the studies you have already introduced and share the similarities and differences you found when you were working on them.  To avoid redundancy, review the list of ideas at the bottom of this post.

Writing the Recommendation: 
Remember that this section has two parts.  It has your conclusions and then it has your recommendations for how this information should be researched/applied in the future.  The recommendations section is where you can direct your readers towards ways to extend and use your literature review.  This section will include recommendations for:

  • Future research
  • Classroom applications
  • Educational policies and procedures
  • Program revision or other warranted situations

The recommendations section is often where future researchers will get their ideas of what else to explore.  Administrators will gain their brainstorms for how to use this information to improve educational institutions.

Writing It - Do not underestimate the importance of the conclusion - it is the last thing the reader reads. It should give your writing a sense of completeness and leave a lasting impression on the reader.

     There is no one correct way to write a conclusion but you might think about the following:
  • Synthesize - don't summarize! Don't repeat things said in the main body (the reader has already read this!) but show how your ideas,  your examples and your references have combined to support your line of argument.
  • Don't introduce new information. Remember that you are bringing closure to what has already been presented.
  • Reference and Cite Studies. This is where you will be citing and referencing the research you have previously introduced.  You MUST Compare and Contrast the outcomes of those studies to support your conclusions!!
  • Bring your paper full circle by echoing the introduction. But talk about the topic now with the hindsight of having developed your ideas in the body of your review.
  • Emphasize key material but acknowledge where there are opposing viewpoints which might qualify your argument.
  • Pose questions which still remain to be answered or further explored or require further study.
  • Point out the importance of the implications of what you have said on your field of research or your area of work.
  • Describe lack of closure - You may feel you were not always able to arrive at conclusions to your questions. Being able to recognize the lack of a conclusion can be good in that it demonstrates you understand the complexity of the problem.
  • Leave on an exciting note - You might save a provocative or exciting insight or quotation to add spice to your conclusion. But take care not to risk diverting attention from the arguments you have developed - avoid leaving the reader with a new direction that needs researching when you want your ideas and deliberations on your topic to take centre stage.
Hints for Writing a Conclusion - This document does a good job of providing a mindset for writing your conclusion. Read it carefully for hints on how to begin your conclusion as well as examples of what your conclusion should NOT be. 

EXAMPLE of a Conclusions and Recommendations section from a 33-page IT Masters Degree Literature Review.

Leave your reader feeling fulfilled and on a good . . . 

Module 9: Developing Your Analysis and Discussion

Analysis and Discussion

This is the section where you actually present research-based concepts in an organized fashion and use specific studies to support these ideas. Remember that this section has NOTHING to do with your personal ideas. You need to save your personal ideas for the Conclusions and Recommendations section.

The Analysis and Discussion section begins by identifying the research question (or questions in your masters paper) that you will be exploring.  You will use the opening paragraph to provide the framework for the rest of this section. Having identified your research question, you will then define the subheadings. This shouldn't be done in a boring bulleted list. This organization can be defined through the prose of your review.
 Here is an example of how this opening paragraph for a Full Masters Literature Review might be written:
Teachers’ beliefs regarding technology integration into the 21st century classroom play a role in learning. Technology can only be embraced as an effective learning tool when teachers believe that what they are being asked to do will work, and that it is the best solution to an identifiable educational problem (Ertmer, Addison, Lane, Ross, & Woods, 1999). There are three specific areas that will be reviewed within the role of teacher belief systems in technology integration. These areas are common teacher beliefs regarding technology integration, teacher goals and knowledge concerning technology integration and supporting teachers as they integrate technology into the 21st century classroom. 
Tour a Sample Lit Review: It is difficult to describe how to write the Methodology or Analysis and Discussion sections without examples, so here is a narration of a single literature review as well as some other examples you will want to read to "get the idea" of how to write these beasts.

Other examples will be included after this narration:

A fine example of this organization is the article, The Effect of Instructor-created Video Programs to Teach Students with Disabilities: A Literature Review by Linda Mechling (2005) Journal of Special Education Technologies 20(2) 25 - 36.  Open the article in another window and review it while you read this narration.

Narrative: This is a comprehensive review about using video programs. Notice how this begins with an opening paragraph that sets the stage. It talks about the research and development since the early 1980s. It then supports the importance of the topic by showing research-based advantages to the method. This is followed in the 5th paragraph where Mechling explains the purpose and scope of the review. It also explains how the review will be structured.

The Introduction is followed by the Method (Methodology) where it explains the method for finding the studies and the criteria that were used to filter the research. You will noticed that the explanation of databases is not as extensive as we expect for this project, the critera are quite specific.

The results section is similar to our Analysis and Discussion. It begins by specifically explaining the grouping of the studies. It does a wonderful job of creating the framework of the upcoming contents for the reader. Your section doesn't need to be quite so statistically-oriented, but please note how it prepares the reader for the research that will be presented.

Each of the sections described in the Analysis and Discussion are subheaded and discussed as independent entities. The Video Feedback section is concept-driven. This begins with the video feedback concept and supports that with Dowrick's work. it then explains a variety of studies where the value of video feedback was explored in various fashions. Notice how the studies are not the emphasis of the section the effects of video feedback are central to what is being shared. The final paragraph combines and summarizes what was found in the studies. Please NOTE: the final two sentences are transitional sentences that lead to the next section, Video Modeling.

This process of exploring each of the sections described in the opening paragraphs continues throughout the review. The Discussion section (p. 32) is close to the section that we would call the Conclusions and Recommendation section. The author reviews each of the sections and provides commentary on the effectiveness of the approach. This is also the place where the author can compare and contrast the various outcomes (i.e., Paragraph 3 on p. 33.)

The Recommendations for future research do a decent job of relating this technology to the future potential of Virtual Reality. Unfortunately, it doesn't do a very good job of discussing how these results might change policy and pedagogy for teaching disabled learners in the future. There are, however, a few sentences addressing these areas in the final sentences of the review.

The Summary at the end is not necessary if you have written your conclusions well. This section is well-written and much of it could be used as organizational material for the conclusions section in one of our papers.

This review is a fine example of the simple format of a literature review. It doesn't involve teaching readers the fundamentals of a topic as much as providing an organized review of the research in the field. 

Other Examples:

Module 8: Describing Your Methodology

You have prepared your readers for your review in the Introduction by telling them what you are reviewing, why it is important and how you have constrained your research to limit it to a manageable size. You have identified your research questions to tantalize your readers.

NOW it is time to get down to writing the bulk of your paper which includes the Methodology and Analysis and Discussion. The Methodology tells you how you found the research and the following section actually presents the review. Writing your Analysis and Discussion will be discussed in the next module.

While the Methodology that you will write for this review is not always included in the typical published journal reviews that you have been reading in your research, it is something that you will use to validate your research. The importance of the methodology is that it allows you to demonstrate your search's thoroughness to your readers so that they can personally decide how comprehensive your searches might be. If your readers feel that you have approached your research properly, then they will continue to read your Analysis and Discussion of the literature collection. You might say that your Methodology section provides the credibility which is the foundation of your whole review.

You will need to explain the search methods you used to find your resources. That isn't too difficult, but then you need to describe how you decided what to include. Once your search yielded a huge list of possible resources, you need to specify the orderly process you used to make the best selection of your bountiful harvest.

So what are the topics that need to be covered in the Methodology? It's simply a matter of explaining the process:
  1. You begin by explaining how you gathered your resources. Which specific search engines did you use and what terms/phrases did you use for your search?
  2. You were presented with hundreds or thousands of resources. You didn't have time to review all of the abstracts and resources. You had to decide which abstracts to review. You needed to make decisions about which sources to analyze. Explain your strategy for deciding which sources "made the first cut."
  3. Once you decided which sources to trust, what procedures did you use to analyze the sources to identify if they are reliable enough to consider them for your review.
  4. When you have winnowed your collection of reliable resources, explain the criteria that you used to decide which resources will be relevant to your review.

Examples of Methodologies

    Module 7: Using APA to Write a Lit Review and How to Write the Introduction

    You know what to write, now you need to explore how to write it. This module will provide some guidance on how to write a literature review. It will discuss the content and the writing techniques that you should use to create a successful review.

    Writing Using APA Format
    You may be tired of reading about writing in APA format.  You have a whole book filled with that information, don't you?  Here are 3 great videos that you should spend less than half an hour watching. The first two are PowerPoint-based tours through the APA rules. Not exciting but informative. The third video adds to the discussion with graphic examples.  Enjoy.
      Writing an Introduction
      The Introduction is the most important part of your review.  This is where you create the framework for your review by describing the area of study you will be reviewing, why it is important, and what can be done with the results. It is where you build a foundation by defining necessary terms and introducing the trend(s) that you will be discussing in your review.

      These areas need to be addressed.  They don't need to be in this order, but they all need to be presented in a manner that is logical and persuasive: 
      • State the purpose of the paper (literature review)
      • Identify the importance of the problem
      • Define the scope of the review
      • Explain why this analysis is appropriate
      • Suggest how the review could be applied
      • List and define terms that the reader should understand to make sense of your review
      • List the research themes you found (typically 2 – 4)

      • How to Create an Introduction video Dr. Z explains how you can best write your introduction. He steps you through the parts of an introduction and provides examples to follow. (8 minutes)
      • One-Theme Literature Review Template - This is a template for your 10-page literature review. You can download it from here or from the Course Content folder in our eLearning site.  Clicking this link will ask you to make a copy of the Google Doc. 
      Creating a Research Table to Summarize the Literature
      • Read Chapter 7 in the Galvan book.
      • Creating a research table is not part of your assignment but you will remember how well it organized and summarized the research when you read the research reviews at the end of the Galvan book. If you include it in your 10-page paper, it will not have to count as part of the page count.  Some of you are concerned that you will not be able to cover your content in 10 pages so don't worry about this uber-organizer as causing you problems.

      Module 6: Outlining Your Content

      Now that you have begun your research, it is time to envision how it will all fit together to present your review to your readers.   

      The most efficient way to organize your thoughts is usually through an outline. (It could also be done through a graphic representation of this but you would have to base it upon the linear outline format that is being presented here.) This outline is designed to organize your formative information in a structure that will easily transfer into the UNI Instructional Technology Masters Literature Review template.

      The template is self-explanatory, but here are a few hints that you should consider before you begin outlining your review:

      1. This outline is NOT the final document on your review's structure.  It is a snapshot of how you envision it based upon your present level of research and discovery.  It will evolve as you continue to research.
      2. The title is a working title.  It will probably change as you move along.
      3. You are asked to identify 3 research questions. These questions are meant to provide direction.  Remember that you are organizing existing research in the field so it may turn out that your questions are not being studied by researchers in the field. THEREFORE you will have to change your research questions so that they can be used as organizers for the research that you DO find.
      4. You only have to write about a single question in your 10-page lit review this semester.  You will find information about the other questions, but they will not be included in this review.
      5. The Analysis and Discussion section of your outline is DIFFERENT than the other  parts of your outline. This is where you will be identifying the content of the research you have found. It will not include ALL of the research you will find for this review, but it will provide a framework for your future research.
      6. REVIEW Dr. Z's Dos and Don'ts for Writing Literature Reviews.  I strongly suggest reading it through twice before writing your Lit Review.  Some of these points will stick in the back of your mind and will be helpful sometime in the future.
      You have 4 resources that you will find useful in completing this outline:

      • Student example of a completed outline This is an outline about Designing Interactive Multimedia Learning Environments. Please review it to see how he was providing a snapshot of his research up to that point and envisioning the future structure of his work. (Pay attention to the Analysis and Discussion section.)
      • .pdf version of the Literature Review outline template.  Here is a non-maleable version of the template.  It  may not open on your screen but download directly to your computer.
      • Word Doc outline template Here is your template if you want to just open it up and complete it in Word. It May not open on your screen but download directly to your computer.
      • Google Doc outline template  If you want to do this in Google Docs, make a copy of the template and then modify for your own needs.

      Module 5: Researching Your Research Question

      You have begun the writing process using assigned journal articles.  Now it is time for you to find research on your own and analyze it.

      You have been researching all of your life. Some of it has been turning over the rock in the back yard and some has involved extensive time spent on your computer Googling information about new ideas and concepts. But researching involves more than typing nouns and phrases into the Google box.

      The DaVinci Code author, Dan Brown, once pointed out that 'Google' is not a synonym for 'research'.  Google is a tool that can be used for research but it needs to be accomplished in an organized and strategic manner. This module will be the first of a series of modules that will provide information about researching.

      Any craftsperson is only as good as her tools. The search tools that we will be addressing in this course will include UNI's OneSearch and Google Scholar.

      OneSearch provides access to articles from journals, magazines, and newspapers; books; government publications; and other resources such as DVDs. These resources are customized to fit those available through UNI.
      Visit this OneSearch Video Tutorial page. You should watch all 8 videos, but at least the Overview, Scholarly Article, Full Text, and eBook. (You may run into some problems running these videos in Google Chrome on a Mac.  It has something to do with the Microsoft SilverLight extension. Running them through Firefox seemed to work better but I had to reinstall Silverlight again before it ran.)

      Google Scholar is a tool that you can use to research resources. It's easily accessible and has ever-expanding capacities for finding articles and organizing them. Google Scholar should be used more deliberately than your typical Google search. It isn't difficult but there are multiple levels of complexity. Tutorials for Scholar were not available through or Atomic Learning so spend some time reviewing the tutorials that are on the Rod Library website about Google ScholarThere are multiple videos and links.  Please review them all.  The most important part that you need to get from the videos is that you need to change the settings so that Scholar knows that you have access to the Rod Library resources.  The beauty of this is that it will take you directly to all of the databases to which we subscribe.  You probably won't have to pay for any of your articles.

      Using UNI Rod Library from a Distance

      Let me begin by directing you to the Distance Learners link from the Library. I believe that this has been mentioned in previous classes, but perhaps it hasn't been explained deeply enough for your use.

      Go proceed to the Rod Library opening page. Down the left column of the page, you will find Distance Learners in the Information For: section. Click on the Distance Learners option. This will take you to the Distance Learners page adorned by Ellen Neuhaus. Click on her YouTube video to enjoy her introduction.

      KNOW YOUR REFERENCE LIBRARIAN. Ellen and her team of reference librarians are a researcher's best friend. Call them up and they will help you find or direct you towards finding the resources you need to use for your research. Remember that you are not bothering them when you call. They are employed to help you with your searches. Their phone number is 319-273-2838 or 800-207-9410.

      This week you will only be looking for good and not-so-good articles to compare, but this is the beginning of the research journey that you will experience for the rest of your cohort life and hopefully for the rest of your professional life.

      Remember to read Galvan's Chapter 5.

      Module 4: Selecting Your Topic/Research Questions

      Now it's time to select a topic for your paper and then identify the questions you want to answer.

      True, the paper for this class is only 10 pages so you might not think that it is very important. BUT, if you take time and select a topic that truly interests you, you might save yourself a great deal of time next semester because you can continue with this topic into your final masters paper (if you decide to do a literature review.)

      Selecting your topic is not necessarily easy.  You need to find something that is broad enough to have meaning but not so narrow that there is no research on the topic.

      Too Broad: Using Technology in Education
      Too Narrow: The Effects of Using QR Codes with 3rd Grade Girls with Red Hair.
      Just Right: Effective Methods for Making Learning More Student-Centric Using QR Codes in Elementary Grades.

      Read Chapter 3 in Galvan's book. The first 10 steps are useful in helping you define your topic. The last four steps are useful in finding resources once you have

      Developing Research Questions
      Once you have an overall topic (and these change frequently), it is time for you to define what you want to know about the topic.  What are your questions. What do you want to know about this topic?  Remember that you are examining this topic because you want to know more about how you can use it in teaching.

      Visit this page on Developing a Research Question to give you some hints on the process.

      Here is a a 5-minute video about How to Create a Research Question.  Please note that they are identifying questions that they will pursue by performing research experiments, but the process is similar. It deals with environmental design, but it will easily relate to your quest.

      Write 3 research questions.  You will only be required to research and write about one question in this course, but it will be a good beginning for your writing next semester.

      I look forward to meeting with you on Zoom in the near future so that we can discuss your decisions.

      Module 3: Intro to a Literature Review

      What is a literature review?  It's like nothing you have ever written before. 

      Unlike the research papers you have written so far, a literature review requires you to identify research questions that you want to explore and then find ACTUAL RESEARCH (not written opinions) that may lead you to the answers to your questions. PLEASE NOTICE that I didn't use the verb, support. Research questions are unbiased. Research questions should read "What are the effects of using social media in high school social studies courses?" NOT "What are the benefits of using social media in high school social studies courses?"
      The reviewer is using these questions to explore the literature to see what has been researched to lead towards answering these questions.

      You have identified a question and will search the literature for answers. Once you have reviewed the literature, you will tell your reader about what you have found. You are guiding them through the stories(research) that you have discovered on your exploration. Consider yourself a storyteller.

      Writing the Literature Review: Knowing what and why you write a literature review is important. Here is an overview by David Taylor at the University of Maryland. He is actually presenting it in the context of using the lit review as part of a larger document, but it is good description.

      What IS a Literature Review
      You have heard David Taylor's Description of a Literature Review.  Here is another WONDERFUL 9-minute video entitled Literature Reviews: An Overview for Graduate Students.  It is directly written for you, the graduate student. 

      This video reveals the multiple places where a Literature Review can be found.  It can be found in the introduction of a report on research.  This literature discussion creates a foundation for the research by describing what has already been accomplished.  Some literature reviews are meant to stand alone so that a reader can acquire an overall understanding of the field.

      You Are the Storyteller
      The best metaphor that I have found for explaining how to write literature reviews is that of someone telling you the story of a town by telling the stories of the people who live there. A great example of such a story is Our Town. I am sure that many of you either performed-in or saw your friends/children present Our Town in high school. This is a story where the narrator takes the viewer on a tour of their town by telling stories about the people in the town. 

      Watch this 1940 video of Our Town. It is a 2-hour story that you might enjoy as evening entertainment (and homework too.)  If 2-hours is too long for your busy schedule, then watch at least the first 30 minutes to get the sense of what I am saying about telling a story.

      Now Read chapters 1 and 2 of Galvan's book, Writing Literature Reviews to get an overall understanding of what a Literature Review is and how it must be written. 

      Review the Literature Review on WaterPipe Smoking in the back of the book as well.   The labels may vary but how does it fit the overall structure?

      Discussion: Now get back into connection with your classmates by going to the Intro to Literature Reviews discussion group to discuss your ideas about what a literature review is and how the metaphor of storyteller (as in Our Town) changes your perspective of such a writing project.

      Module 1: Intro to Class and Portfolios
      Welcome to your Writing a Graduate Paper/ePortfolio course. 

      This week you need to review the syllabus, agenda and general information. Then you will be able to display your incredible ability to remember important details (or look them up quickly since it is an "Open Computer" test when you take the . . .  


      Now that you know all about the course, it is time to learn something about the ePortfolios that you will be creating to display your achievements during the time you will have spent earning your UNI Instructional Technology Masters degree.

      What is an ePortfolio Anyway?
      A portfolio is a system for sharing who you are and showing what you can do in a professional sense. We are asking you to complete a portfolio as a culminating experience for our UNI Instructional Technology Masters degree for two reasons.  Primarily, we want to provide you with a professional package that will collect and represent your accomplishments in our program. This package can provide you with a sense of accomplishment and something to share with others when they ask you "So what have YOU been doing for the past 2 years?"

      Your portfolio will also provide a product that we can use to evaluate our Instructional Technology program. While we evaluate each of these products in your individual courses, we hope that in our program "The whole is more than a sum of the parts."  We should be able to review your portfolios and determine if we are creating the exceptional professionals that we intend to produce.

      So What is In a Portfolio?

      • Artifacts - These are examples of what you do in your profession.  You have a chance to BRAG about yourself through your selection of your artifacts.
      • Reflections - Your portfolio is nothing but a scrapbook full of pictures without reflections. You need to include explanations about each of the artifacts you have chosen so that it will give meaning to your reader. 
      • Standards - Your artifacts may look good, but it there isn't a criteria for them to be evaluated, they have no meaning. The value of your artifacts will depend upon the relevance of the standards upon which they are rated.
      • Framework - This is a wonderful collection, but it will mean nothing if it isn't presented in a fashion that makes sense and is easily understood.  Navigation is also a part of the Framework. You must provide an intuitive method for exploring the portfolio.
      Examples of a Portfolio
      We have been asking for eportfolios in our program for the past decade. They have gone through many stages. Visit this page of examples. Make note of what you like and how you might improve upon it.

      ePortfolio Requirements
      The requirements for the UNI Instructional Technology ePortfolio are well described.  You can find them at our IT website in the ePortfolio Guide.  We have specifically identified which artifacts to include, how to connect them with the standards, how to write reflections and how to put things together in your eportfolio.  You can use whatever medium you wish to present your portfolio as along as you include the required contents.

      The Times . . . They Are a'Changin'
      I must admit that our UNI Instructional Technology ePortfolio requirements are in a transitional period.  In November, we began reorganizing the format for our ePortfolio that would make it more relevant and personalized.  Here are some of the changes we made:
      • ISTE Standards - We are aligning it with the ISTE Standards for Teachers or the ISTE Standards for Coaches.  Our IT program is transitioning into aligning with the ISTE Standards for Teachers but the Coaches Standards may be more relevant to your professional lives when you are creating your portfolios.
      • Personalized - The artifacts in the ePortfolio have always been limited to the work you have completed in our IT program.  This is why you have been completing the Reflection questions at the end of many of your final projects.  We have decided to suggest that you personalize your portfolio by adding other personal achievements that have you have accomplished during your UNI matriculation.  These might include awards or certifications that you have earned.  They might include workshops, webinars or other courses of study that you have completed outside of UNI. You might share curriculum you have created or instructional videos that you have filmed.  The options are endless.  The key would be that you could align these with the ISTE Standards to augment your defined collection of skills.
      • Simplified - We reduced the number of reflections that you will need to make throughout the ePortfolio because we want them to be meaningful, not just numerous.
      • Career Directed - We have asked you to include professional documentation as well that include your resume and other materials that you might find useful.
      So What Do You Want from Us?
      Your ePortfolios won't be due until Spring 2016.  It doesn't make any sense for us to impose the old standards on you since they will be updated by one year from now . . . BUT we haven't changed the existing ePortfolio descriptions on our Instructional Technology website because we haven't finished them nor field tested them.

      . . . how would you like to help us make this happen?

      We have rewritten the requirements based upon the reorganization explained earlier. At this point we are calling it the Instructional Technology ePortfolio Narrative.  Take a look. We want your input. 

      Portfolio Assignment for the first Module:
      You can't create your whole portfolio this semester so we will just have you get a taste for doing this.

      Based upon our new set of UNI Instructional Technology ePortfolio requirements, you will write the Introductory page and 2 artifacts pages.